Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Discovery and Chemistry of Dry Ice Essay Example

The Discovery and Chemistry of Dry Ice Paper In 1835, the French scientist Charles Thilorier was the primary man to find dry ice. One day he opened an enormous compartment of fluid carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would rapidly vanish, which left a strong dry ice in the base of the compartment. For the following 60 years, dry ice was seen in college research facilities. Dry ice is a strong type of carbon dioxide. Dry ice changes straightforwardly from a strong to a gas. This procedure is known as sublimation. Dry ice never experiences a fluid state. The ice is dry, scentless, and boring. Likewise, the thickness of dry ice ranges from 1.2 to 1.6 kg/dm3. The weight is about 44.01 g/mole. Dry ice ordinarily comes in 2 distinct structures. They come in enormous hinders that can weight as much as 30 kilograms, or likewise in little pellets. Dry ice is made by beginning with fluid carbon dioxide held under tension (300 psi) away compartments. The fluid carbon dioxide is sent through an extension valve, into a vacant chamber, where it flashes into carbon dioxide gas. This makes the temperature drop from the difference in fluid to gas. Forty-six percent of the gas will freeze into fry ice. Dry ice is utilized for a wide range of reasons, for example, freezing moles to making haze for parties. Specialists utilize dry ice to freeze moles to make evacuation simpler. Numerous individuals blend dry ice and high temp water to make mist for festivities. It is likewise utilized in haze machines for emotional impacts. Numerous individuals use to dry ice to save nourishments. It helps freeze food without the assistance of mechanical cooling. Dry ice is additionally utilized in development. The dry ice is sufficiently cold to freeze tile and break them. Making it simpler to evacuate. We will compose a custom paper test on The Discovery and Chemistry of Dry Ice explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom paper test on The Discovery and Chemistry of Dry Ice explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom paper test on The Discovery and Chemistry of Dry Ice explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer The temperature of dry ice is - 109.3? or on the other hand - 78.5?. At whatever point taking care of, clients ought to consistently wear protected gloves. If not wearing protected gloves, interacting with dry ice can prompt frostbite or cold consumes. Numerous individuals induce dry ice as, â€Å"hot ice.† The motivation behind why is a direct result of the hot consuming sensation when it comes in

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Brown, John

Brown, John Brown, John, 1800â€"1859, American abolitionist, b. Torrington, Conn. He spent his boyhood in Ohio. Before he became prominent in the 1850s, his life had been a succession of business failures in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York. An ardent abolitionist (he once kept a station on the Underground Railroad at Richmond, Pa.) and a believer in the equality of the races, he consecrated (1837) his life to the destruction of slavery. Brown settled (1855) with five of his sons in Kansas to help secure the territory's entry as a free state. He became captain of the colony on the Osawatomie River. The success of the proslavery forces in violent attacks on antislavery leaders, and particularly in their sack of Lawrence , aroused Brown, and in order to cause a restraining fear in 1856 he, with four of his sons, a son-in-law, and two other men, savagely murdered five proslavery men living on the banks of the Pottawatomie Creek. In this he asserted he was an instrument in the hand of God. His exploits as a leader of an antislavery band received wide publicity, especially in abolitionist journals, and as Old Brown of Osawatomie he became nationally known. Late in 1857 he began to enlist men for a project that he apparently had considered for some time and that took definite form at a convention of his followers held at Chatham, Ont., the next spring. He planned to liberate the slaves through armed intervention by establishing a stronghold in the Southern mountains to which the slaves and free blacks could flee and from which further insurrections could be stirred up. Early in 1859, Brown rented a farm near Harpers Ferry, Va. (now W.Va.), and there collected his followers and a cache of arms. On the night of Oct. 16 he, two of his sons, and 19 other followers crossed the Potomac and without much resistance captured the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, made the inhabitants prisoners, and took general possession of the town. Strangely enough, he then mer ely settled down, while the aroused local militia blocked his escape. That night a company of U.S. marines, commanded by Col. Robert E. Lee, arrived, and in the morning they assaulted the engine house of the armory into which Brown's force had retired. In the resulting battle, 10 of Brown's men were killed, and Brown himself was wounded. News of the raid aroused wild fears in the South and came as a great shock to the North. On Dec. 2, 1859, Brown was hanged at Charles Town. His dignified conduct and the sincerity of his calm defense during the trial won him sympathy in the North and led him to be widely regarded as a hero and a martyr. The Civil War broke out just over a year after the raid. The standard contemporary account is contained in The Life, Trial and Execution of Captain John Brown (1859, repr. 1969). See also biographies by O. G. Villard (rev. ed. 1965), S. B. Oakes (1970), J. Abels (1971), and D. S. Reynolds (2005); A. Keller, Thunder at Harper's Ferry (1958); J. C. Malin, John Brown and the Legend of Fifty-Six (1942, repr. 1970); R. O. Boyer, The Legend of John Brown (1973); J. Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men (2002); F. Nudelman, John Brown's Body (2004); B. McGinty, John Brown's Trial (2009); R. E. McGlone, John Brown's War against Slavery (2009); T. Horwitz, Midnight Rising: John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War (2011); J. Stauffer and Z. Trodd, ed., The Tribunal: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid (2012). The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. History: Biographies

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay on Compare and Contrast Christmas and Thanksgiving

Compare and Contrast: Christmas and Thanksgiving Holidays are always celebrated no matter religion, beliefs, or culture. Some are recognized more than others but none two are as highly recognized like the cherished Christmas and Thanksgiving holidays. The pair may seem vastly different, as they are two completely separate occasions, but in actuality they do share very similar attributes. Many of the similarities and differences are about to be explained, so here goes. Christmas like Thanksgiving believe it or not, do happen to share many traits. One major factor that the two own is the warmth and love of bringing family and close friends together. It’s the few times a year that everyone has a reason to all gather around to†¦show more content†¦Like Thanksgiving, Christmas also has their main dish and it’s a huge oven cooked ham that is complimented by very many side dishes but never the less followed up by the famous Christmas time eggnog. Both wonderful holidays put up magnificent feasts for family and loved ones to gather around and enjoy. Of course receiving gifts is nice, but only one of these two occasions to gifts get brought in the picture. Christmas claims the attribute as every year gifts are exchanged among family, friends, co-workers, etc. Every Christmas morning kids and adults alike rush to unwrap presents that are specially marked with their names on it. As where Thanksgiving takes a little different approach, no gifts but instead just grasp what you’re thankful for. Being only one month apart in date, Christmas and Thanksgiving have two very different seasons. In November, when its considered fall, leaves have changed colors, the temperature has dropped some and the air brings crisp breezes. Often than not, you’ll see hay rides being offered, corn mazes and folks not quite in their full winter attire. But when Christmas time rolls around snow has fallen, not a trace of leaves on the trees and a bit too cold for hay rides and corn mazes. This wou ld be one month later, in December, where you will see town’s people bundled up in their warmest winter gear, building snowmen or making snow angels. Two individual seasons that areShow MoreRelatedThe Christmas Holiday From The Federal Calendar852 Words   |  4 PagesOmitting the Christmas Holiday from the Federal Calendar The establishment of a legal holiday is best defined as a day where there are no courts, labor, and is a day of joy and rest. While there should be a separation of church and state, Christmas is considered a legal holiday and one needs to question the validity of establishing this day as a legal holiday when one looks at the concept of separation of church and state and considering the diversity we face in today’s modern society. Christmas in inRead More Compare and Contrast Hispanic Culture and American Culture Essay example1403 Words   |  6 PagesCompare and Contrast Between Hispanic Culture and American Culture I. Introduction The Hispanic population has experienced an incredible growth in the past decade in the United States of America. In 2006 it was estimated that the Hispanic cover 11 % of the population in North America. Their Origin is in Mexico and the few Spanish speaking countries in the Caribbean. American culture is derived from people who originated from the European nations like Italy and the Great Britain. Cultural identityRead MoreUsa and Mexico a Comparison of Two Cultures2190 Words   |  9 Pagesculture is so apparent in Texas, that it is easy to compare and contrast some cultural aspects between Mexican and American cultures. This attempt to compare and contrast these two different yet similar cultures will increase awareness and acceptance of cultural differentiation. In order to examine these two cultures closely, I will use Hofstedes cultural layers and cultural dimensions to categorize their different facets as well as compare and contrast them. To begin, one of the most visual characteristicsRead MoreWhat Can You Increase The Lifetime Value Of Your Customers2773 Words   |  12 Pagesoutgoing emails, users from all around the world began to sign up, as they realized their friends were using hotmail, and that it was free. In a matter of five weeks Hotmail gained over 2 million users without spending a single dollar on marketing. In contrast, their rival Juno had spent over $2,000,000 on marketing and had gained only about a third as many users as Hotmail. With viral growth, the exponential factor is that each new customer equals more new customers, and that with each region or countryRead MoreApple Ipad versus Microsoft Window 8 Tablet2689 Words   |  11 Pagesbeen able to understand and execute it to conform to our daily lives. In this paper, I will outline different promotional strategies through advertisement, public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing that Apple Inc uses with I-pad and compare it with Mic rosoft Window 8 tablet use. Advertisement In today’s ever-changing market there are several ways that companies advertise; either through billboards, magazines, newspapers, media advertisement and television commercials. Apple and MicrosoftRead MoreEssay on Test Bank For Business In Action 7th Edition Bovee Thill16565 Words   |  67 Pagesto its citizens. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Economics is the study of how a society uses its scarce resources to produce and distribute goods and services to its citizens. Diff: 1 AACSB: Application of knowledge Chapter LO: 1 Course LO: Compare and contrast different economic systems Classification: Concept 2) Macroeconomics studies economic behavior among consumers, businesses, and industries that collectively determine the quantity of goods and services demanded and supplied at differentRead MoreThe Bell Jar By Sylvia Plath And Girl, Interrupted By Susanna Kaysen3528 Words   |  15 Pagesable to connect with the outer self which causes them to have severe self-conflict. It is apparent that Susanna is unsure whether she is mentally ill throughout the book even though she’s has been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder. She compares herself to other patients’ conditions and how severe they are. This gives the reader an understanding of the extent of her insecurity as she feels she is out of place being admitted to a mental hospital. This causes her to question if she does belongRead More George W. Bush’s Language Comprising the War on Terror Essay5251 Words   |  22 Pagesexamination of the language that the president employs when speaking about the war on terror, I will elucidate several different categories of rhetoric he uses to describe different aspects of this conflict. Though largely descriptive, I will briefly compare Bush’s current conflict rhetoric with the conflict rhetoric of past presidents. Through this comparison, we will be able to identify any rhetorical strategies that Bush may have borrowed from past presidential conflict language. Moreover, if weRead MoreChanel Handbags, Target, and Salvation Army Swot Analysis13115 Words   |  53 PagesActivateur Jeuness for ageing skin care, Bronze Universe lfor a make-up or Masque Puretà © Express for a facial mask. The product comes in simple and discreet though high- quality packaging giving consumers the impression of a high quality product that contrasts with lower quality brands which are masked with an ornate faà §ade. This minimalist packaging is at the same time consistent with Chanel’s image of stylish simplicity. Price It is clear that in order to maintain the image of a top-quality luxurious

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Midsummer Night’s Dream Essay Love and Marriage

Love and Marriage in A Midsummer Night’s Dream There is something to be said for the passionate love of young people, and Shakespeare said it in Romeo and Juliet. The belief that any action can be excused if one follows ones feelings is a sentimental notion that is not endorsed by Shakespeare. Thus, Theseus suggestion in 1.1 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, that Hermia marry a man she does not love rather than live a barren sister all her life would seem perfectly sensible to Shakespeare’s contemporaries. Shakespeare writes for a public who views marriage unsentimentally. At all levels of society, from king to commoner, marriage is entered into for commercial and dynastic reasons. People marry to increase their†¦show more content†¦Is Demetrius love for Helena at the end of the play still being artificially stimulated by the love-in-idleness? Although Dians bud has been used as an antidote, we do not know that the magic lasts for ever. The tone of Demetrius defence, in 5.1, before Theseus of his love for Helena, in striking contrast with his earlier declaration of love to her (Goddess, nymph, divine) shows that his love is no longer due to the magic flower, but to a new insight into her merits; above all, his love for Hermia, clearly a youthful infatuation, has been dispelled. Likening this to an idle gaud doted upon in childhood, Demetrius suggests that his rediscovered love is of a mature kind, and so it appears to the audience. Although Hermia can be stubborn and fierce, she seems serious in her love for Lysander. One reason for Theseus description of the nuns lonely calling is to test just this. (The question of course assumes that maternity is a state highly desired by any woman - which very much does reflect Elizabethan attitudes.) The answer, in which Hermia echoes the exact terms of Theseus metaphor of the rose distilld and the single rose, indicates Hermias seriousness of purpose. This is confirmed by her insistence, in the wood, that Lysander does not compromise her by lying too near. Lysander, while feeling more amorous than this, is ready to do Hermias bidding. Although their love seems, therefore, far moreShow MoreRelated A Comparison of Romantic Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream, The Tempest, and Twelfth Night1505 Words   |  7 PagesRomantic Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream, The Tempest, and Twelfth Night In all of Shakespeares plays, there is a definitive style present, a style he perfected. From his very first play (The Comedy of Errors) to his very last (The Tempest), he uses unique symbolism and descriptive poetry to express and explain the actions and events he writes about. Twelfth Night, The Tempest and A Midsummer Nights Dream are all tragicomedies that epitomise the best use of the themes and ideologyRead MoreTheme Of Reality And Illusion In A Midsummer Nights Dream1057 Words   |  5 Pagesreflection of reality has proven to be a major source of inspiration for both authors and readers alike. Reality as a theme is prevalent in literature, and the numerous ways that reality and illusion intertwine. In William Shakespeare’s play, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the illusory world which the characters inhabit is enhanced by the supernatural. The relationship between Oberon and Titania contributes to the development of the play’s theme of reality and illus ion; they are the catalyst by which the play’sRead MoreMidsummer Nights Dream: Fate vs. Free Will Essay1208 Words   |  5 PagesMidsummer Nights Dream essay Throughout the play A Midsummer Nights Dream, Shakespeare uses both fate and free will to present his philosophy towards the nature of love. 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Now Justice returns, returns the Golden Age; a new generation now descends from on high. - Virgil, Eclogues 1.5    As Virgil stated so many years ago, history is a cyclical phenomenon. The experiences of one age tend to be repeated in future generations. Knowing that, we should not be surprised to find the seeds of modern styles and philosophies sprouting in earlierRead MoreContrasting Places in a Mid Summer Nights Dream Essay1409 Words   |  6 Pagesland and the sea) to represent opposed forces or ideas that are central to the meaning of the work. Choose a novel or play that contrasts two such places. Write an essay explaining how the places differ, what each place represents, and how their contrast contributes to the meaning of the work. Structure Vs. Chaos A Midsummer Night’s Dream Contrasting places have been used in many works of literature throughout history to strengthen the meaning of stories. The use of two different settings withinRead MoreTreatment of Women in Society in a Midsummer Nights Dream1775 Words   |  8 PagesTreatment of Women in a Midsummer Night’s Dream The general treatment of women in ancient times such as the Elizabethan and the Ancient Greek era varied in great degrees from the treatment of women in the contemporary twenty-first century. In more ancient eras, women were generally viewed as men’s property and not as individual human beings. Women were not even allowed to choose their spouse. It was common that this type of arrangement was made by their family, and the determining factors were usuallyRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Midsummer Night Dream948 Words   |  4 PagesOur group focused on a chapter from Shakespeare’s Festive Comedy, â€Å"May Games and Metamorphoses on a Midsummer Night† by Barber, C.L. From this section of the book, it gave me a new insight regarding to Shakespeare’s play The Midsummer s Night Dream. 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A Class Divided Documentary Review Free Essays

A class divided is a documentary about a teacher named Jane Elliot who teaches her students about racism first hand. She divides the students into two groups, the blue eyes, and the brown eyes. For the first day, the â€Å"brown eyed† children are not able to go to recess, or lunch at the same time as the rest of the children. We will write a custom essay sample on A Class Divided Documentary Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now They wear a blue collar around their necks so that they are obviously different at a distance from the other students. They are not allowed to drink from the same water fountains, use the playground equipment, or even play with the blue eyed children. The next day, the roles are reversed. During these two days Jane Elliot would make comments about the children wearing the collars to degrade them. She would point out if one of them wasn’t ready on time, or if they forgot something. She would say things like â€Å"That’s how blue eyed people are† â€Å"Brown eyed people are better than blue eyed people† (J. Elliot, A Class Divided, 1985). After the children who weren’t wearing a collar noticed Mrs. Elliot saying these kinds of things, they would also chime in and begin saying things about the kids wearing the collars. Mrs. Elliot said â€Å"I watched wonderful, thoughtful, children turn into nasty, vicious, discriminating little third graders. †(J. Elliot, A Class Divided, 1985) . The movie showed the students come back for their fifteenth class reunion to talk about this life long lesson that their third grade teacher taught them. All of the students said it was a lesson they have never forgotten and something that changed their lives forever. They talked about how it affected their lives growing up, and how it affects the way they raised or were currently raising their children. Since she got done teaching, Jane has been doing trainings are conferences to teach others. Her movie A Class Divided has been shown in prisons to inmates who are trying to earn a degree. She also did training at a prison in Iowa for the guards and other staff members. When people signed into the meeting they had to log whether they had brown eyes or blue eyes. Those with blue eyes had to wear a green ribbon. The people with brown eyes were able to go in and sit when the training was scheduled to start, where the blue eyed people had to stand out in the hall. The bathrooms were labeled â€Å"browns only†. The blue eyes weren’t told what was going on, they were just told to wait outside, and administration would come out and tell them to be quiet. Meanwhile, Jane Elliot talked to those with brown eyes and told them that they were not to allow blue eyed people to sit beside them. She told them that brown eyed people were better than blue eyed people. She said that blue eyed people were no good and the brown eyes were to treat them as such. A while after the meeting started the blue eyes were able to come into the room. They had to sit in the back, and some people didn’t even have a seat. During the meeting Jane talked to the people with blue eyes a lot like she did to her students 30 years ago. The reaction she got from the adults were a lot like they were in her experiment with the children, however there was one woman who was a lot more out spoken and rebellious toward Jane. Jane Elliot does a great job at not only telling people about racism and discrimination, but also showing how it affects us, and how easy it is to go with the crowd. Some of the movie takes place in a school, and this is a place where children are taught to socialize. Teachers play a huge role in how students are molded, especially at such a young age. In this day and age, I don’t think teachers really think about how much of an influence they are on their students. Most of the children spend more time with their teachers than they do with their own parents. Jane took on this role and helped her students understand that there is an issue with discrimination and taught them a valuable lesson. When this documentary was filmed not everyone was taught that the color of your skin doesn’t make up the type of person that you are. They were taught that if you are not white, you aren’t â€Å"normal†. They associated people that had a different skin color as â€Å"bad† or even â€Å"stupid†. In those times it was totally acceptable and some people sincerely believed this. Things that are social acceptable change over time and this is something that has changed in a big way. I’m not saying that everyone doesn’t care about the color of your skin. There is a lot of racism going on in our world today, but it is no where near as bad as it was forty years ago. It reflects what we are taught by our parents also. If we are taught that â€Å"black people† are bad then we are going to believe that they are, and look at all of the bad things they do. We like to be the same as everyone else; we do not like to stand out. In the film a lot of people didn’t dare to stand up for those wearing a collar because that would require them to stand up and go against what the authoritative figure was saying. This video relates to several chapters in our sociology book, the main chapter being chapter ten, race and ethnicity. This movie focused on the struggle in our country with discrimination of those with a different skin color, concentrating on â€Å"blacks† being the minority. At the time, people thought of black people are dirty, stupid, and bad people. They didn’t think they were able to do anything as good as white people. Jane Elliot turned her classroom into a small discriminating society in a sense. She had the brown eyed students wear blue collars the first day and they were not able to do any of the same things that the blue eyed students did. She divided this class that was once a united class who played together, into a class that was split into two groups and mocked and made fun of each other, solely because of the color of their eyes. I also think we could relate this movie to chapter fourteen, where the book talks about education. Like I have stated before, teachers play a major role in their interaction with their students and how they can be molded. Jane talked about going over the phonics card packs with the brown eyed students on the day that they wore the collars around their necks and it took them five and a half minutes to get through the card pack. On the day that they didn’t wear the collar around their necks, and were treated with respect and felt as though they were sufficient, they only took two and a half minutes to get through the card pack. Jane talked about the time she performed this exercise for the second time with her third grade class. She said that the students score went up on the days where they were â€Å"on top† and went down on the days they were on â€Å"bottom†. After going through the exercise their overall scores would have a significant incline. Mrs. Elliot sent the results to Stanford University’s Psychology Department to have them study and examine why this would be so. We could also relate this video to chapter seventeen, which talks about social change: collective behavior, social movements and technology. Like I said, things that were once socially acceptable in those times are no longer acceptable now. In those days it was ok for people to say the word â€Å"nigger’ it was a term that people used for black people because that’s the term everyone else was using. Now, it is considered a derogatory word and it is not acceptable to say it. I thought that this documentary was very interesting. I loved what Jane Elliot did with her students. I wish it was something more teachers could do, but now-a-days it probably couldn’t be done because of the stink people would put up about it. I feel that some teachers spend too much time talking about topics and not nearly enough actually teaching. Jane taught her students a lesson that they have remembered and will never forget. It is something that they have taught or will teach to their children. The town I grew up in was quite a bit like Riceville, Iowa. It was a small town, primarily Christians who were white. In fact, there were only two black people in our town and they happened to be two of my cousins who were adopted. From as far as I can remember I was taught that skin color doesn’t make up who the person is, â€Å"It’s what is on the inside that counts. † My cousins and I had a great relationship with my cousins and it wasn’t because of the color of their skin, or the color of mine that made the difference. I have met black people who I didn’t like, and I have met white people who I didn’t like. To me color makes no difference. I am very grateful that I was taught this lesson, and I feel and for those who haven’t been taught. I think it would be incredibly useful for this to be used in school. There are many other forms of discrimination other than people with different skin colors. Just because it is the form that is most widely talked about doesn’t mean it is the only one. I hope in some way, maybe not by putting collars around their necks, but I do hope that this is taught in schools through out the years. References Peters, William. (1985). A Class Divided. PBS, Frontline Benokraitis, Nijole. V. (2012). SOC, (Student Edition) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning How to cite A Class Divided Documentary Review, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Mass Communication Essays - Communication, Journalistic Objectivity

Mass Communication Mass communications is one of the most popular college majors in the country, which perhaps reflects a belief in the importance of communications systems in society. The communications system, consisting of radio, television, film, newspapers and magazines, effects how we think, how we feel, and how we live. Therefore, we must ask ourselves, "Is media 'mere entertainment,' or are there serious side effects of the national preoccupation with the media?" Long-term exposure to the media has a tendency to influence the way we think about the world around us, but how? Since the printing of the first newspaper to the introduction of the Information Superhighway, society has been able to view itself objectively. The men and women who present media to us: radio personalities, news anchors, and actors included, are given the responsibility of showing us society as it is. Sometimes, it is argued, this task is not done adequately. And so, arises an issue: can objectivity and subjectivity in the media affect how we approach issues? And, more importantly, can the information presented affect the value system of a society? The media is so pervasive it is hard to believe they do not have important effects on society. Yet, many people do not believe that the media have personally influenced them or have harmed them. However, to attempt to understand how the media may shape the attitudes of individuals, and how they may shape culture itself, requires that we stand back from our personal experiences in order to analyze the arguments presented on each side of the debate. For example, some believe that it is very important to report serious, society-threatening news with total objectivity. If it is not reported in such a manner, an indirect inciting of the more radical audience can occur. In the September 1996 issue of the "American Journalism Review," Sherry Ricchiardi responded to powerful reporting by Christian Amanpour on Serb atrocities in Bosnia. Some observers questioned the decency of the reporter's approach of support in coverage of these war-torn regions. Ricchiardi explained that correspondents must walk a fine line between subjectivity and objectivity in the quest to depict situations as neutrally, yet as meaningfully, as possible. Another example of subjectivity in the media and its effect on society is easily viewed in a recent incident in Rochester, New York. When a controversial biographer visited the University of Rochester to discuss his book on Mother Teresa and present his negative views on her compassionate legacy, a local newspaper responded with counteracting religious reactions and by "furnishing nothing of substance to an inevitably hostile audience." This, in turn, created a community outrage that might not have, otherwise, occurred. In an article entitled Journalists or Defenders of Faith? John H. Summers argued that the newspaper's biased approach to the speaker's visit was not representative of a healthy democracy which "demands journalistic integrity and intellegence." Some may argue that the newspaper's behavior was, in effect, a perpetration of libel. The Sullivan Rule, decided upon by the Supreme Court in New York Times v. Sullivan (1964), protects common man from libel and slander. The court held that the First Amendment protects the publication of all statements, even false ones, about the conduct of public officials except when statements are made with actual malevolence. As mentioned above, the First Amendment is the support system of the media. It simply states that "congress shall pass no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech." Equally important is its statement concerning freedom of the press, stating that "the liberty of the press . . . consists in laying no previous restraints upon publications, and not in freedom from censure for criminal matter when published." However, these statements cannot prevent the media from allowing entertainment to take precedence over "vital" news information. Choices such as these are said to have an effect on society's view of the world and its events. For instance, tabloids work hard to convince society that celebrity lifestyles, private information, and outrageous tales are important in today's culture. Because headlines such as "Monica's Own Story - Affair started after I flashed my sexy underwear," have boosted sales, more traditional newspapers have turned their attention to similar events. Many believe that it is ethically wrong to ignore real news in favor of celebrity gossip. It can be detrimental to the intelligence of the public to "dumb down" the news for the sake of ratings. And it seems, day by day, that ratings take total precedence in the media. Television programming is a significant example of rating precedence. Much of the population