Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Brown, John

Brown, John Brown, John, 1800â€"1859, American abolitionist, b. Torrington, Conn. He spent his boyhood in Ohio. Before he became prominent in the 1850s, his life had been a succession of business failures in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York. An ardent abolitionist (he once kept a station on the Underground Railroad at Richmond, Pa.) and a believer in the equality of the races, he consecrated (1837) his life to the destruction of slavery. Brown settled (1855) with five of his sons in Kansas to help secure the territory's entry as a free state. He became captain of the colony on the Osawatomie River. The success of the proslavery forces in violent attacks on antislavery leaders, and particularly in their sack of Lawrence , aroused Brown, and in order to cause a restraining fear in 1856 he, with four of his sons, a son-in-law, and two other men, savagely murdered five proslavery men living on the banks of the Pottawatomie Creek. In this he asserted he was an instrument in the hand of God. His exploits as a leader of an antislavery band received wide publicity, especially in abolitionist journals, and as Old Brown of Osawatomie he became nationally known. Late in 1857 he began to enlist men for a project that he apparently had considered for some time and that took definite form at a convention of his followers held at Chatham, Ont., the next spring. He planned to liberate the slaves through armed intervention by establishing a stronghold in the Southern mountains to which the slaves and free blacks could flee and from which further insurrections could be stirred up. Early in 1859, Brown rented a farm near Harpers Ferry, Va. (now W.Va.), and there collected his followers and a cache of arms. On the night of Oct. 16 he, two of his sons, and 19 other followers crossed the Potomac and without much resistance captured the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, made the inhabitants prisoners, and took general possession of the town. Strangely enough, he then mer ely settled down, while the aroused local militia blocked his escape. That night a company of U.S. marines, commanded by Col. Robert E. Lee, arrived, and in the morning they assaulted the engine house of the armory into which Brown's force had retired. In the resulting battle, 10 of Brown's men were killed, and Brown himself was wounded. News of the raid aroused wild fears in the South and came as a great shock to the North. On Dec. 2, 1859, Brown was hanged at Charles Town. His dignified conduct and the sincerity of his calm defense during the trial won him sympathy in the North and led him to be widely regarded as a hero and a martyr. The Civil War broke out just over a year after the raid. The standard contemporary account is contained in The Life, Trial and Execution of Captain John Brown (1859, repr. 1969). See also biographies by O. G. Villard (rev. ed. 1965), S. B. Oakes (1970), J. Abels (1971), and D. S. Reynolds (2005); A. Keller, Thunder at Harper's Ferry (1958); J. C. Malin, John Brown and the Legend of Fifty-Six (1942, repr. 1970); R. O. Boyer, The Legend of John Brown (1973); J. Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men (2002); F. Nudelman, John Brown's Body (2004); B. McGinty, John Brown's Trial (2009); R. E. McGlone, John Brown's War against Slavery (2009); T. Horwitz, Midnight Rising: John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War (2011); J. Stauffer and Z. Trodd, ed., The Tribunal: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid (2012). The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. History: Biographies

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay on Compare and Contrast Christmas and Thanksgiving

Compare and Contrast: Christmas and Thanksgiving Holidays are always celebrated no matter religion, beliefs, or culture. Some are recognized more than others but none two are as highly recognized like the cherished Christmas and Thanksgiving holidays. The pair may seem vastly different, as they are two completely separate occasions, but in actuality they do share very similar attributes. Many of the similarities and differences are about to be explained, so here goes. Christmas like Thanksgiving believe it or not, do happen to share many traits. One major factor that the two own is the warmth and love of bringing family and close friends together. It’s the few times a year that everyone has a reason to all gather around to†¦show more content†¦Like Thanksgiving, Christmas also has their main dish and it’s a huge oven cooked ham that is complimented by very many side dishes but never the less followed up by the famous Christmas time eggnog. Both wonderful holidays put up magnificent feasts for family and loved ones to gather around and enjoy. Of course receiving gifts is nice, but only one of these two occasions to gifts get brought in the picture. Christmas claims the attribute as every year gifts are exchanged among family, friends, co-workers, etc. Every Christmas morning kids and adults alike rush to unwrap presents that are specially marked with their names on it. As where Thanksgiving takes a little different approach, no gifts but instead just grasp what you’re thankful for. Being only one month apart in date, Christmas and Thanksgiving have two very different seasons. In November, when its considered fall, leaves have changed colors, the temperature has dropped some and the air brings crisp breezes. Often than not, you’ll see hay rides being offered, corn mazes and folks not quite in their full winter attire. But when Christmas time rolls around snow has fallen, not a trace of leaves on the trees and a bit too cold for hay rides and corn mazes. This wou ld be one month later, in December, where you will see town’s people bundled up in their warmest winter gear, building snowmen or making snow angels. Two individual seasons that areShow MoreRelatedThe Christmas Holiday From The Federal Calendar852 Words   |  4 PagesOmitting the Christmas Holiday from the Federal Calendar The establishment of a legal holiday is best defined as a day where there are no courts, labor, and is a day of joy and rest. While there should be a separation of church and state, Christmas is considered a legal holiday and one needs to question the validity of establishing this day as a legal holiday when one looks at the concept of separation of church and state and considering the diversity we face in today’s modern society. Christmas in inRead More Compare and Contrast Hispanic Culture and American Culture Essay example1403 Words   |  6 PagesCompare and Contrast Between Hispanic Culture and American Culture I. Introduction The Hispanic population has experienced an incredible growth in the past decade in the United States of America. In 2006 it was estimated that the Hispanic cover 11 % of the population in North America. Their Origin is in Mexico and the few Spanish speaking countries in the Caribbean. American culture is derived from people who originated from the European nations like Italy and the Great Britain. Cultural identityRead MoreUsa and Mexico a Comparison of Two Cultures2190 Words   |  9 Pagesculture is so apparent in Texas, that it is easy to compare and contrast some cultural aspects between Mexican and American cultures. This attempt to compare and contrast these two different yet similar cultures will increase awareness and acceptance of cultural differentiation. 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This minimalist packaging is at the same time consistent with Chanel’s image of stylish simplicity. Price It is clear that in order to maintain the image of a top-quality luxurious

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Midsummer Night’s Dream Essay Love and Marriage

Love and Marriage in A Midsummer Night’s Dream There is something to be said for the passionate love of young people, and Shakespeare said it in Romeo and Juliet. The belief that any action can be excused if one follows ones feelings is a sentimental notion that is not endorsed by Shakespeare. Thus, Theseus suggestion in 1.1 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, that Hermia marry a man she does not love rather than live a barren sister all her life would seem perfectly sensible to Shakespeare’s contemporaries. Shakespeare writes for a public who views marriage unsentimentally. At all levels of society, from king to commoner, marriage is entered into for commercial and dynastic reasons. People marry to increase their†¦show more content†¦Is Demetrius love for Helena at the end of the play still being artificially stimulated by the love-in-idleness? Although Dians bud has been used as an antidote, we do not know that the magic lasts for ever. The tone of Demetrius defence, in 5.1, before Theseus of his love for Helena, in striking contrast with his earlier declaration of love to her (Goddess, nymph, divine) shows that his love is no longer due to the magic flower, but to a new insight into her merits; above all, his love for Hermia, clearly a youthful infatuation, has been dispelled. Likening this to an idle gaud doted upon in childhood, Demetrius suggests that his rediscovered love is of a mature kind, and so it appears to the audience. Although Hermia can be stubborn and fierce, she seems serious in her love for Lysander. One reason for Theseus description of the nuns lonely calling is to test just this. (The question of course assumes that maternity is a state highly desired by any woman - which very much does reflect Elizabethan attitudes.) The answer, in which Hermia echoes the exact terms of Theseus metaphor of the rose distilld and the single rose, indicates Hermias seriousness of purpose. This is confirmed by her insistence, in the wood, that Lysander does not compromise her by lying too near. Lysander, while feeling more amorous than this, is ready to do Hermias bidding. Although their love seems, therefore, far moreShow MoreRelated A Comparison of Romantic Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream, The Tempest, and Twelfth Night1505 Words   |  7 PagesRomantic Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream, The Tempest, and Twelfth Night In all of Shakespeares plays, there is a definitive style present, a style he perfected. From his very first play (The Comedy of Errors) to his very last (The Tempest), he uses unique symbolism and descriptive poetry to express and explain the actions and events he writes about. 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The use of two different settings withinRead MoreTreatment of Women in Society in a Midsummer Nights Dream1775 Words   |  8 PagesTreatment of Women in a Midsummer Night’s Dream The general treatment of women in ancient times such as the Elizabethan and the Ancient Greek era varied in great degrees from the treatment of women in the contemporary twenty-first century. In more ancient eras, women were generally viewed as men’s property and not as individual human beings. Women were not even allowed to choose their spouse. It was common that this type of arrangement was made by their family, and the determining factors were usuallyRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Midsummer Night Dream948 Words   |  4 PagesOur group focused on a chapter from Shakespeare’s Festive Comedy, â€Å"May Games and Metamorphoses on a Midsummer Night† by Barber, C.L. From this section of the book, it gave me a new insight regarding to Shakespeare’s play The Midsummer s Night Dream. 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A Class Divided Documentary Review Free Essays

A class divided is a documentary about a teacher named Jane Elliot who teaches her students about racism first hand. She divides the students into two groups, the blue eyes, and the brown eyes. For the first day, the â€Å"brown eyed† children are not able to go to recess, or lunch at the same time as the rest of the children. We will write a custom essay sample on A Class Divided Documentary Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now They wear a blue collar around their necks so that they are obviously different at a distance from the other students. They are not allowed to drink from the same water fountains, use the playground equipment, or even play with the blue eyed children. The next day, the roles are reversed. During these two days Jane Elliot would make comments about the children wearing the collars to degrade them. She would point out if one of them wasn’t ready on time, or if they forgot something. She would say things like â€Å"That’s how blue eyed people are† â€Å"Brown eyed people are better than blue eyed people† (J. Elliot, A Class Divided, 1985). After the children who weren’t wearing a collar noticed Mrs. Elliot saying these kinds of things, they would also chime in and begin saying things about the kids wearing the collars. Mrs. Elliot said â€Å"I watched wonderful, thoughtful, children turn into nasty, vicious, discriminating little third graders. †(J. Elliot, A Class Divided, 1985) . The movie showed the students come back for their fifteenth class reunion to talk about this life long lesson that their third grade teacher taught them. All of the students said it was a lesson they have never forgotten and something that changed their lives forever. They talked about how it affected their lives growing up, and how it affects the way they raised or were currently raising their children. Since she got done teaching, Jane has been doing trainings are conferences to teach others. Her movie A Class Divided has been shown in prisons to inmates who are trying to earn a degree. She also did training at a prison in Iowa for the guards and other staff members. When people signed into the meeting they had to log whether they had brown eyes or blue eyes. Those with blue eyes had to wear a green ribbon. The people with brown eyes were able to go in and sit when the training was scheduled to start, where the blue eyed people had to stand out in the hall. The bathrooms were labeled â€Å"browns only†. The blue eyes weren’t told what was going on, they were just told to wait outside, and administration would come out and tell them to be quiet. Meanwhile, Jane Elliot talked to those with brown eyes and told them that they were not to allow blue eyed people to sit beside them. She told them that brown eyed people were better than blue eyed people. She said that blue eyed people were no good and the brown eyes were to treat them as such. A while after the meeting started the blue eyes were able to come into the room. They had to sit in the back, and some people didn’t even have a seat. During the meeting Jane talked to the people with blue eyes a lot like she did to her students 30 years ago. The reaction she got from the adults were a lot like they were in her experiment with the children, however there was one woman who was a lot more out spoken and rebellious toward Jane. Jane Elliot does a great job at not only telling people about racism and discrimination, but also showing how it affects us, and how easy it is to go with the crowd. Some of the movie takes place in a school, and this is a place where children are taught to socialize. Teachers play a huge role in how students are molded, especially at such a young age. In this day and age, I don’t think teachers really think about how much of an influence they are on their students. Most of the children spend more time with their teachers than they do with their own parents. Jane took on this role and helped her students understand that there is an issue with discrimination and taught them a valuable lesson. When this documentary was filmed not everyone was taught that the color of your skin doesn’t make up the type of person that you are. They were taught that if you are not white, you aren’t â€Å"normal†. They associated people that had a different skin color as â€Å"bad† or even â€Å"stupid†. In those times it was totally acceptable and some people sincerely believed this. Things that are social acceptable change over time and this is something that has changed in a big way. I’m not saying that everyone doesn’t care about the color of your skin. There is a lot of racism going on in our world today, but it is no where near as bad as it was forty years ago. It reflects what we are taught by our parents also. If we are taught that â€Å"black people† are bad then we are going to believe that they are, and look at all of the bad things they do. We like to be the same as everyone else; we do not like to stand out. In the film a lot of people didn’t dare to stand up for those wearing a collar because that would require them to stand up and go against what the authoritative figure was saying. This video relates to several chapters in our sociology book, the main chapter being chapter ten, race and ethnicity. This movie focused on the struggle in our country with discrimination of those with a different skin color, concentrating on â€Å"blacks† being the minority. At the time, people thought of black people are dirty, stupid, and bad people. They didn’t think they were able to do anything as good as white people. Jane Elliot turned her classroom into a small discriminating society in a sense. She had the brown eyed students wear blue collars the first day and they were not able to do any of the same things that the blue eyed students did. She divided this class that was once a united class who played together, into a class that was split into two groups and mocked and made fun of each other, solely because of the color of their eyes. I also think we could relate this movie to chapter fourteen, where the book talks about education. Like I have stated before, teachers play a major role in their interaction with their students and how they can be molded. Jane talked about going over the phonics card packs with the brown eyed students on the day that they wore the collars around their necks and it took them five and a half minutes to get through the card pack. On the day that they didn’t wear the collar around their necks, and were treated with respect and felt as though they were sufficient, they only took two and a half minutes to get through the card pack. Jane talked about the time she performed this exercise for the second time with her third grade class. She said that the students score went up on the days where they were â€Å"on top† and went down on the days they were on â€Å"bottom†. After going through the exercise their overall scores would have a significant incline. Mrs. Elliot sent the results to Stanford University’s Psychology Department to have them study and examine why this would be so. We could also relate this video to chapter seventeen, which talks about social change: collective behavior, social movements and technology. Like I said, things that were once socially acceptable in those times are no longer acceptable now. In those days it was ok for people to say the word â€Å"nigger’ it was a term that people used for black people because that’s the term everyone else was using. Now, it is considered a derogatory word and it is not acceptable to say it. I thought that this documentary was very interesting. I loved what Jane Elliot did with her students. I wish it was something more teachers could do, but now-a-days it probably couldn’t be done because of the stink people would put up about it. I feel that some teachers spend too much time talking about topics and not nearly enough actually teaching. Jane taught her students a lesson that they have remembered and will never forget. It is something that they have taught or will teach to their children. The town I grew up in was quite a bit like Riceville, Iowa. It was a small town, primarily Christians who were white. In fact, there were only two black people in our town and they happened to be two of my cousins who were adopted. From as far as I can remember I was taught that skin color doesn’t make up who the person is, â€Å"It’s what is on the inside that counts. † My cousins and I had a great relationship with my cousins and it wasn’t because of the color of their skin, or the color of mine that made the difference. I have met black people who I didn’t like, and I have met white people who I didn’t like. To me color makes no difference. I am very grateful that I was taught this lesson, and I feel and for those who haven’t been taught. I think it would be incredibly useful for this to be used in school. There are many other forms of discrimination other than people with different skin colors. Just because it is the form that is most widely talked about doesn’t mean it is the only one. I hope in some way, maybe not by putting collars around their necks, but I do hope that this is taught in schools through out the years. References Peters, William. (1985). A Class Divided. PBS, Frontline Benokraitis, Nijole. V. (2012). SOC, (Student Edition) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning How to cite A Class Divided Documentary Review, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Mass Communication Essays - Communication, Journalistic Objectivity

Mass Communication Mass communications is one of the most popular college majors in the country, which perhaps reflects a belief in the importance of communications systems in society. The communications system, consisting of radio, television, film, newspapers and magazines, effects how we think, how we feel, and how we live. Therefore, we must ask ourselves, "Is media 'mere entertainment,' or are there serious side effects of the national preoccupation with the media?" Long-term exposure to the media has a tendency to influence the way we think about the world around us, but how? Since the printing of the first newspaper to the introduction of the Information Superhighway, society has been able to view itself objectively. The men and women who present media to us: radio personalities, news anchors, and actors included, are given the responsibility of showing us society as it is. Sometimes, it is argued, this task is not done adequately. And so, arises an issue: can objectivity and subjectivity in the media affect how we approach issues? And, more importantly, can the information presented affect the value system of a society? The media is so pervasive it is hard to believe they do not have important effects on society. Yet, many people do not believe that the media have personally influenced them or have harmed them. However, to attempt to understand how the media may shape the attitudes of individuals, and how they may shape culture itself, requires that we stand back from our personal experiences in order to analyze the arguments presented on each side of the debate. For example, some believe that it is very important to report serious, society-threatening news with total objectivity. If it is not reported in such a manner, an indirect inciting of the more radical audience can occur. In the September 1996 issue of the "American Journalism Review," Sherry Ricchiardi responded to powerful reporting by Christian Amanpour on Serb atrocities in Bosnia. Some observers questioned the decency of the reporter's approach of support in coverage of these war-torn regions. Ricchiardi explained that correspondents must walk a fine line between subjectivity and objectivity in the quest to depict situations as neutrally, yet as meaningfully, as possible. Another example of subjectivity in the media and its effect on society is easily viewed in a recent incident in Rochester, New York. When a controversial biographer visited the University of Rochester to discuss his book on Mother Teresa and present his negative views on her compassionate legacy, a local newspaper responded with counteracting religious reactions and by "furnishing nothing of substance to an inevitably hostile audience." This, in turn, created a community outrage that might not have, otherwise, occurred. In an article entitled Journalists or Defenders of Faith? John H. Summers argued that the newspaper's biased approach to the speaker's visit was not representative of a healthy democracy which "demands journalistic integrity and intellegence." Some may argue that the newspaper's behavior was, in effect, a perpetration of libel. The Sullivan Rule, decided upon by the Supreme Court in New York Times v. Sullivan (1964), protects common man from libel and slander. The court held that the First Amendment protects the publication of all statements, even false ones, about the conduct of public officials except when statements are made with actual malevolence. As mentioned above, the First Amendment is the support system of the media. It simply states that "congress shall pass no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech." Equally important is its statement concerning freedom of the press, stating that "the liberty of the press . . . consists in laying no previous restraints upon publications, and not in freedom from censure for criminal matter when published." However, these statements cannot prevent the media from allowing entertainment to take precedence over "vital" news information. Choices such as these are said to have an effect on society's view of the world and its events. For instance, tabloids work hard to convince society that celebrity lifestyles, private information, and outrageous tales are important in today's culture. Because headlines such as "Monica's Own Story - Affair started after I flashed my sexy underwear," have boosted sales, more traditional newspapers have turned their attention to similar events. Many believe that it is ethically wrong to ignore real news in favor of celebrity gossip. It can be detrimental to the intelligence of the public to "dumb down" the news for the sake of ratings. And it seems, day by day, that ratings take total precedence in the media. Television programming is a significant example of rating precedence. Much of the population

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

How do male and female college students perceptions of civic engagement differ Essays

How do male and female college students perceptions of civic engagement differ Essays How do male and female college students perceptions of civic engagement differ Essay How do male and female college students perceptions of civic engagement differ Essay Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: How do male and female college students perceptions of civic engagement differ? Civic engagement involves working with others for the purposes of solving community problems and improving the community. It involves people working together in making a difference in the civic life of the community. People gain knowledge, and they develop the skills and values necessary to engage in different political activities and non-political activities. People participating in such activities are motivated because they consider themselves part of the society, and they relate to the problems that the society is experiencing. It involves political and civic activities. People volunteer their services for various causes, participate in different organizations, and participate in fundraising and charitable events, signing petitions, and demonstrations among other activities. College students are active in civic engagement, although they have distinct preferences in the activities they choose to engage in Male college students are more interested in political affairs. There is a higher possibility that that they will participate in political campaigns, increasing political awareness, and contributing financially in politics. On the other hand, their female counterparts have a higher possibility of participating in non-political activities. They are likely to engage in activities concerning senior citizens, children, the youth, education, and the environment. Although such differences exist, factors such as education have lessened the degree to which college students of all genders perceive civic engagement. Education and increased political activism has led to more women taking up elective political posts. This has led to a rise in the quantity of female students engaging in political activities. Differences in gender do not distinguish the level of engagement in environmental matters, as female and male students participate on the same level. They show the same level of concern for the environment. This is largely attributed to increased awareness, and the direct consequences of environmental degradation, which affects everyone within the society. The more college students are involved and concerned with the communities around them, the more they realize the problems and challenges facing these communities. This realization causes both male and female students to engage in the activities that will help improve the status in the community and help solve the problems that the members in the community are facing. Education increases the level of awareness of civic issues. College students, irrespective of their gender, are more likely to be involved in civic engagement, compared to those who did not go to college. Parental involvement also determines the level of civic engagement among college students, and it lessens the gender disparity in civic participation. The extent to which parents discuss political affairs with their children will influence their children’s perception of, and participation in politics. Female college students who discuss political affairs with their parents have a higher possibility of participation in political affairs while in college. Parental involvement increases the female college student concern about her civic duty. However, parental influence does not seem to influence the male college student on political affairs. It does not increase his civic duty concerns. Knowing the differences in perceptions among college students is beneficial for analysts, non-governmental organizations, and other civic groups. This is because it will enable them to determine who they are going to engage in their activities. Political institutions are more likely to target the male college students because of their increased interest in political affairs. Non-governmental institutions, especially those dealing with charitable and fund raising events targeting the youth and other minority groups are more likely to target the female college students.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

PHP Troubleshooting When Page Loads All White

PHP Troubleshooting When Page Loads All White You upload your PHP web page and go to view it. Instead of seeing what you expected, you see nothing. A blank screen (often white), no data, no error, no title, nothing. You view the source ... its blank. What happened? Missing Code The most common reason for a blank page  is that the script is missing a character. If you left out a   or } or ; somewhere, your PHP wont work. You dont get an error; you just get a blank screen. There is nothing more frustrating than looking through thousands of lines of code for the one missing semicolon that is messing the whole thing up. What can be done to correct and prevent this from happening? Turn on PHP Error Reporting. You can learn a lot about what is going wrong from the error messages PHP gives you. If you arent currently getting error messages, you should  turn on PHP error reporting.Test your code often. If you  test each piece as you add it, then when you encounter a problem, you know the specific section to troubleshoot. Itll be in whatever you just added or changed.Try a color-coded editor. A lot of PHP editors- even free ones- color code your PHP as you enter it. This helps you pick out lines that dont end  because youll have large chunks of code in the same color. Its non-intrusive for programmers who prefer to code with no bells and whistles but helpful when troubleshooting.Comment it out. One way to isolate the problem is to comment out large chunks of your code. Start at the top  and comment out all but the first couple of lines in a large block. Then echo () a test message for the section. If it echoes fine, the problem is in a section further dow n in the code. Move the start of your comment and your test echo downward as you work through your document, until you find the problem. If Your Site Uses Loops If you use loops in your code,  it could be that your page is stuck in a loop that never stops loading. You may have forgotten  to add  Ã‚  to the counter at the end of a loop, so the loop continues to run forever. You may have added it to the counter but then accidentally overwritten it at the start of the next loop, so you never gain any ground. One way to help you spot this is to  echo() the current counter number or other useful information at the beginning of each cycle. This way you might get a better idea of where the loop is tripping up. If Your Site Doesnt Use Loops Check that any HTML or Java you use on your page isnt causing a problem  and that any  included pages  are without error.